While the ever-present FarOut (previously Guthooks) is a superb instrument for cruising well-documented and common lengthy trails, most backpackers spend their time on quick weekend journeys in areas not coated by guide-style apps. Nonetheless, if that is you, then the dearth of a wonderfully curated information doesn’t essentially imply that paper maps are your subsequent most suitable choice for navigating like your grandpa could be suggesting. The trendy GPS app with options appropriate for backpacking has come a good distance for the reason that ‘good outdated days’.

Within the final decade, digital map companies have grown past paper map replicas and superior into terrific planning and evaluation instruments. I name this group of apps “full-service” GPS platforms, which offer topographic info on the nationwide and/or worldwide degree.

To be GPS platform, a service must be helpful for all levels of a backpacking journey, together with preliminary discovery, route constructing, and on-trail navigation. When you can spend a whole lot of time switching between unaffiliated web sites on-line attempting to piece every half collectively, there are all-in-one choices that may get the job carried out faster and simpler.

There are dozens of full-service GPS apps available on the market. Nonetheless, to maintain issues considerably temporary, I’ll examine three common and extensively used companies: Gaia GPS, Caltopo, and the newer onX Backcountry (BC).

READ NEXT — Maps vs. Apps for Backcountry Navigation

Descending the West Gully off Wind River Peak. I used to be glad to have an especially high-resolution GPS map for this one.

My Historical past Utilizing Gaia GPS, CalTopo, and onX Backcountry

I used Gaia as my foremost platform from 2018 by way of 2020, and hold tabs on adjustments by way of Reddit (and my mother who now makes use of my account). Caltopo has been my go-to since dropping Gaia after a plethora of points (extra on these later) and my progress as a hiker compelled me to search for different choices. OnX is new to me, however I heard an honest quantity about it each from sponsored content material and non-sponsored sources comparable to backcountry outfitters and guides earlier than giving it a attempt myself.

For full disclosure, onX has offered me with a yr of their Elite membership without charge for the needs of writing this text. I pay full freight for my present Caltopo subscription and paid for Gaia for a number of years earlier than passing off my account billing to my mother. I additionally had direct communication with onX workers to reply questions (principally confirming ‘lacking’ options). Regardless of this, I promise that my notion of the product has not been swayed. I feel my opinions beneath will again that up too.

READ NEXT — onX Backcountry: GPS Navigation with In-Depth Path Beta

Fast Navigation

Part 1: Discovery and Information Availability
Native Layers
Latest Satellite tv for pc
Terrain Decision
Guides and Person Information
Importable Information

Part 2: Route Constructing
Desktop Workflow
Route Constructing Instruments
Pace
Information Group
Bulk Modifying
Terrain Evaluation
Base Map Readability
3D Options
Studying Curve

Part 3: On Path Usability
Stability/Reliability
Battery Consumption
Smartphone Navigation
On-the-Fly Route Planning
Pace Statistics
Climate Information
Map Printing Instruments

So, Which GPS Platform Is Greatest?

Part 1: Discovery and Information Availability

The primary a part of planning your individual journey is getting a imprecise concept of what you really need to do. Possibly you may have an space in thoughts, or you got a GPX file that doesn’t fairly match the targets of your journey however provides good concepts. Having as a lot info available as potential is nice for dialing in and familiarizing your self with an space. Completely different platforms deliver differing kinds and quantities of information to the desk for the introductory orientation throughout the space.

Native Layers

Whereas just about all GPS platforms have an in-house 2D topo map, having a plethora of extra layers is nice for cross-checking info. The complete nation is roofed by the historic USGS 7.5’ quads, and in a lot of the west, the Forest Service maps present a contemporary, natively digital replace to that. Mix this with a high-quality satellite tv for pc picture layer and your bases are coated for many backpacking journeys.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. It covers the fundamentals: in-house digital topo, FS 2016, USGS quads, and several other satellite tv for pc choices. It additionally has nice overlays comparable to contours, path centerlines, slope angle shading and shaded reduction, and extra. When on-line, it’s also possible to pull in Google layers comparable to maps, terrain, and satellite tv for pc. That is nice for detailed planning the place Google’s next-level satellite tv for pc imagery is clearer than others.
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Glorious. Whereas providing lots of the similar choices as Caltopo, Gaia throws much more on prime with extra worldwide map sources, the Nationwide Geographic Trails Illustrated sequence, and historic map units.
onX BC: 🔴 Poor. They provide simply 2 distinct map layers, an in-house topo and satellite tv for pc imagery, mixed with just a few primary overlays comparable to slope angle shading, energetic fires, and air/smoke data. Whereas onX rose to fame for his or her Non-public Lands layer within the Hunt model of their app, it isn’t considerably completely different than the choices from the competitors for backpacking functions.

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Latest Satellite tv for pc

All three companies provide a latest satellite tv for pc layer, which goals to take full pictures of the globe in average decision each 3-8 days (on common). That is useful primarily for figuring out the place snow is lingering, but in addition could assist with floodplains, blowdowns, and large-scale environmental adjustments.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. Sourced from Sentinel Satellites, thought-about commonplace for the trade. Caltopo additionally has entry to the MODIS each day satellite tv for pc however it’s such poor decision that it’s actually solely useful for monitoring snowmelt on the dimensions of whole mountain ranges.
Gaia GPS: 🟡 Okay. Sourced from the European Area Company, the decision and distinction are inferior to Sentinel.
onX BC:🟢 Good. Sourced from Planet Imagery, it appears to take a slight edge in decision over Caltopo/Sentinel when I’ve in contrast the 2. It additionally permits you to toggle between absolutely the most up-to-date and most up-to-date unobstructed, useful for areas that could be coated in clouds.

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Latest satellite tv for pc pictures from Caltopo (left), Gaia (middle), and onX (Proper), with a field imported to all three to match scale.

Terrain Decision

All these companies have an underlying 3D mannequin of topography, which powers issues like slope angle shading, shaded reduction, elevation profiles, and any 3D options provided.

Caltopo:🟢 Glorious. There are two ranges of decision in CalTopo at present: ‘Commonplace’ which will be discovered all through the nation primarily based on decrease decision information, and ‘Excessive’ that are blisteringly detailed, LIDAR scans of particular areas. They often add high-resolution areas and canopy plenty of my favourite locations. The shaded reduction layer has a superb mode referred to as ‘Enhanced’ that acts like Multiply in Photoshop; it will probably absolutely merge with the underlying layer as a substitute of simply clouding/altering opacity over it.
Gaia GPS:🟢 Glorious. Gaia is on an analogous quest to infill high-resolution information throughout common areas of the nation. I choose the graphic look of Caltopo barely, however in the end they’re neck in neck.
onX BC: 🔴 Poor. It seems uniformly low-resolution, and doesn’t deliver a lot to the desk that can’t rapidly be inferred from contours. There isn’t a shaded reduction choice, but it surely does energy a nifty function that reveals a path steepness on the road for established trails. Nonetheless, drawing a route over it clogs the visibility and it doesn’t work on cross-country routes.

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Guides and Person Information

Whereas all three companies pull most of their path centerlines and topographic information from Open Avenue Map (OSM), some provide extra information that may be helpful in planning.

Caltopo: 🔴 Poor. Whereas it’s potential to look whole user-generated maps (if they’re made accessible by the consumer setting them to public), the “shared Caltopo maps” overlay is much less helpful than the Gaia equal as a result of Caltopo is much less common, and doesn’t set public sharing because the default.
That stated, you possibly can simply discover whole guidebook-level mapsets for trails just like the Hayduke with some intelligent looking out.
Gaia GPS: 🟡 Okay. There’s a helpful overlay referred to as ‘public tracks’ that ghosts in user-recorded tracks by yourself map. This may give a way of rerouted/inaccurate centerlines, aspect trails with petroglyphs or a pleasant view, or practical cross-country routes. Gaia’s giant consumer base and default public sharing ends in plenty of accessible information.
onX BC:🟢 Good, with caveats. OnX is final on an extended listing of homeowners of the Journey Tasks manufacturers (Mountain climbing Venture, MTB Venture, Mountain Venture, and so on), which provides the app entry to an enormous variety of present path guides. This implies quick, descriptive info on many common hikes and ski excursions. The draw back is that almost all of this content material is user-generated and of doubtful accuracy. Regardless, that is their strongest function, bridging the hole to decrease energy or extremely specialised platforms like AllTrails and FarOut, whereas retaining full planning capability.
Personally, I discovered their Mountain climbing Venture information scraping effort irritating. A ‘path’ routinely labeled as troublesome (black overlay line) turned out to be mainly out of service. What I assumed can be an hour of steep downhill turned out to be 3 hours of adverse bushwhacking by way of robust cross-grade. My accomplice was not pleased with me.

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Importable Information

Generally, not the whole lot will be handed to you on a silver platter. With the ability to pull in information from different sources in a number of codecs is nice for small park methods with customized maps and specialised layers. Additionally it is helpful for getting information comparable to motorized vehicle zones into your platform with out tracing aspect by aspect.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. Helps commonplace GPS file varieties like GPX, KML, and GeoJSON. Additionally permits customized map sheets comparable to Geospatial PDFs, GeoTIFF, and even locationless JPEGs/PNGs that may be hand-aligned. It additionally has customized layers, in codecs like WMS, WMTS, Mapbox Tilesets, and extra.
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good. Affords related choices to Caltopo, though they’re tougher to work with and management.
onX BC: 🔴 Poor. It helps the barebone fundamentals, KML and GPX, however is restricted to 4MB and misses the extra superior options of the opposite two.

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Caltopo terrain decision the place it transfers from low (decrease left) and excessive (higher left). OnX on the proper to match.

Part 2: Route Constructing

After getting well-oriented to an space and a broad-level concept of what you need to do, it’s time to drill into the small print. For a brief weekend on path, this step could be a fairly fast step with out very superior wants. For extra bold thru-hikes or off-trail routes, this could be a very time-intensive technique of analyzing issue, figuring out climate alternates and potential camp spots, estimating water carries, planning hitches, and so on.

On a weeklong, off-trail hike, I’ll spend 20 or 30 hours dialing in all this info, making a quick and succesful platform important. I’ve additionally carried out overview logistics for whole multi-month thru-hikes, graphically organized in Caltopo together with Excel and FarOut.

Desktop Workflow

Possibly I’m with the boomers on this one, however having a practical internet app to get the heavy lifting carried out is crucial to me. Tiny-screen smartphones simply don’t reduce it.

Caltopo: 🟢 Glorious. Out there instruments all match the cellphone app or are a step up, however there are additionally a number of time-saving options like keyboard shortcuts, variations between proper and left mouse clicks, and so on that assist loads.
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good, when it really works. I discover the web site to be typically akin to the app. Nonetheless, it will probably really feel like an afterthought at occasions with main bugs which might be often unfixed for prolonged intervals of time. As an illustration, routes constructed with greater than a sure variety of factors are susceptible to disappearing or not syncing to the app, and I’ve had buggy graphics when utilizing a number of layers.
onX BC: 🟢 Good. Whereas I discover the toolset of onX to be fairly primary general, they’re all accessible on the net app so far as I can inform. I encountered robust efficiency variations relying on the particular laptop (completely different {hardware} and drivers) I used to be utilizing, nevertheless.

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An unplanned detour into Grasshopper Glacier. I didn’t put together to take this path, and was glad to have a number of map layers accessible to seek out the least rocky approach again on monitor (sure, this was the least rocky).

Route Constructing Instruments

Most of my routes are layered over with tons of data. I usually begin by drawing a whole centerline, annotating alongside the way in which with waypoints, breaking it up into days and individually into on-trail/off-trail sections for tempo estimating, and creating alternate routes (each high and low). After a sure level, enhancing all this could be a bit troublesome. Some apps have higher instruments for this than others.

Caltopo: 🟢 Glorious. There are tons of instruments for drawing strains, zones, buffers, and waypoint varieties, in addition to enhancing them by becoming a member of, splitting, or extending. The graphic management is sort of superior, with line weights, types (dots, dashes, and so on), full RGB colour management, and extra. To me, that is Caltopo’s killer function set. I want their waypoint icon catalog was extra fleshed out and the customized icon function was extra practical, nevertheless.
Gaia GPS: 🔴 Poor. Making giant edits to tracks after they’ve been drawn is a ache as a result of you possibly can solely relocate or add factors separately. No choice to hitch or cut up routes, and graphic management is restricted to only a preset group of colours.
onX BC: 🔴 Poor. Has related enhancing limitations to Gaia, however there are just a few extra graphic management choices (just a few colours, plus 3 line types and three line weights)

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Pace

Ready endlessly to edit primary data is a drag. With the ability to pan across the map rapidly, even with a number of layers on, is a big profit for greater initiatives.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. I not often expertise efficiency points until there are exceptionally giant quantities of route information loaded (comparable to my map of the 8,000-mile Nice Western Loop)
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good. It’s a little slower to pan than Caltopo, however general does properly. Route enhancing is usually slower for unknown causes.
onX BC: 🟡 Okay. I get diversified efficiency between my diversified gadgets for unknown causes. My house laptop, a 9-year-old self-built desktop with a 1080p display screen, does simply wonderful. My 2-year-old work laptop computer with the highest-end components and a 4k display screen struggles laborious.

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Information Group

I’ve tons of of waypoints and tracks when all pooled collectively. Retaining them fairly organized reduces muddle and makes saved gadgets simpler to seek out.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. Caltopo’s first degree of group is Maps, the place you can begin solely separate map units for various journeys or areas. I personally love this so I can hold the nitty-gritty of route planning separate from different areas or overview maps I preserve by state. The subsequent degree is folders, which sadly can’t be nested to create ‘timber’ (like how folders in Home windows or OSX work, the place there will be folders in folders in folders). However the Map degree retains issues separated sufficient that cautious naming and graphics get the job carried out.
Gaia GPS: 🔴 Poor. Their folder system, whereas theoretically able to nesting, is essentially damaged and troublesome to make use of, and managed on a wholly completely different webpage than the map. When utilizing the map, it’s laborious to type by something aside from object sort (waypoint vs monitor vs route, and so on.) in follow.
onX BC: 🔴 Poor. Whereas the only layer of folders is less complicated to make use of and extra practical than Gaia, they share the “one big map” method that tends to load a whole lot of further information approach off the map, and choosing simply what’s vital is troublesome.

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My normal Colorado map in Caltopo. Folders on the left make it simple to separate up and set up plenty of completely different information, like allow zones, earlier vs. deliberate journeys, and so on.

Bulk Modifying

Typically on a visit, I rapidly file waypoints of options (water, petroglyphs, cliffs) on the fly with out setting all their graphics. Once I get house, I prefer to restyle them to one thing extra intuitive, like a blue dot for water notes. With the ability to edit them in bulk and set frequent graphics is immensely helpful when updating tons of of factors in large chunks.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. Will get the job carried out higher than any competitor I do know of, however can be good to filter issues primarily based on textual content or graphics as a substitute of in a single big listing per folder.
Gaia GPS: 🔴 Poor. Sadly, it’s a must to edit objects separately, repetitively clicking by way of a number of menus to get to graphic controls
onX BC: 🔴 Poor, for related causes to Gaia.

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Terrain Evaluation

When planning a visit, it’s vital to know not solely the place the path is, however what the bottom is like and the way troublesome it’s. With the ability to perceive the terrain beforehand can hold you from unintentional lengthy days.

Caltopo: 🟢 Glorious. Their LIDAR high-res terrain information is great, and so they have a layer that approximates whether or not a bit of path is in a forest, prairie, city, and so on. Graphic management of this info is versatile and straightforward to grasp.
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good. The terrain decision is much like Caltopo, however the graphic management isn’t fairly as robust and the short terrain stats aren’t as thorough.
onX BC: 🟡 Okay. The lower-res terrain information and relative inaccessibility of slope angle shading make onX much less helpful for evaluation.

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Base Map Readability

Most platforms attempt to create an in-house map to function your default layer. Sturdy graphics and correct data are key to creating them worthwhile.

Caltopo: 🟡 Okay. With my earlier expertise utilizing Gaia, it took me fairly some time to get used to the bottom map graphics and line types of Caltopo. Lately, I choose to make use of the FS 2016 map base with Shaded Aid at 60% Enhanced on prime, and blend within the Mapbuilder Overlay when wanted.
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good. Their default map is likely one of the most readable of the apps I’ve used, plus they’ve labored laborious to create different in-house mixes of their base map with completely different visible types.
onX BC: 🟡 Okay. Me and my accomplice each discover their base map “cartoonish”, which will be fast to learn at occasions however lacks element. Given onX’s general method to the GPS app recreation, I feel it will enhance over time.

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3D Options

The best way of the longer term appears to be 3D. Most individuals can visualize terrain options higher when it’s in 3D and get a way of the views they may have. Most packages are of their early levels of implementing this, with some extra promising than others.

Caltopo: 🔴 Poor. They’ve a neat instrument that creates a crude line drawing of the view from a degree, however that’s about it.
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good. It has a reasonably sturdy 3D much like Google Earth that can allow you to challenge any map layer you select onto a 3D terrain mannequin.
onX BC: 🟢 Good. The usefulness is restricted by the terrain decision and accessible map layers.

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OnX’s 3D Hybrid topo/satellite tv for pc map. Gaia’s is comparable, with the notable addition that any map layer will be made 3D, together with ones just like the Nationwide Geographic Trails Illustrated layer.

Studying Curve

Some instruments are simpler to be taught than others. With the ability to decide one thing up rapidly with an intuitive interface is vital for freshmen who could already be harassed in regards to the journey itself.

Caltopo: 🔴 Poor. Sadly, the extra advanced a instrument is, the tougher it turns into to maintain it easy. I’ve tried to introduce a number of folks to Caltopo who merely couldn’t determine it out with out extra steering.
Gaia GPS: 🟡 Okay. The interface is comparatively clear and the icons are intuitive, however a number of the extra superior options and general bugginess could cause confusion.
onX BC: 🟢 Good. The convenience of use is reflective of their general method: Maintain it easy. Whereas it’s fast to choose up, it’s additionally fast to seek out the tip of the street in its usefulness.

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Part 3: On Path Usability

After you may have all of your plans set, it’s time to step on path. All three of those packages have an app to match their web site and permit navigation with out paper maps. Observe that I’ve at all times owned Android gadgets, that are coded solely other than their IOS variations. It’s not unusual for the Android and IOS apps to have completely different consumer interfaces, options, and stability.

Stability/Reliability

A map isn’t price a lot when you possibly can’t use it when wanted. Nearly as good as an app could also be, I received’t rely on it if it isn’t steady.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. I expertise the least crashing and information loss with this program, however there are some graphic glitches when panning rapidly.
Gaia GPS: 🔴 Poor. I stood by Gaia for a very long time, however in the end its stability points drove me away. I’ve skilled full machine crashes, information loss, lack of ability to load downloaded maps, and obtain continuity errors on a number of completely different telephones.
onX BC: 🟡 Okay. I typically discovered the app to be steady, however at occasions had hassle getting the machine/account syncing to work.

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Battery Consumption

The sooner an app consumes battery, the larger the battery financial institution you’ll have to deliver. Charging whereas strolling is awkward, so app ought to make it by way of a complete day earlier than needing to be recharged.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. I discover Caltopo one of the best, in all probability largely as a consequence of GPS location not displaying by default until a recording is off, and decrease GPS pattern interval when it’s on. I normally eat 30-60% of my cellphone’s battery per day, relying on whether or not I’m off path and in want of extra granular navigation than ‘observe the footpath.’
Gaia GPS: 🟡 Okay. Not stand out, however typically constant on newer gadgets. Averages only a bit extra consumption than Caltopo for me.
onX BC: 🔴 Poor. On my machine, that is probably the largest motive I can’t use this app for path duties. I managed to empty 75% of my cellphone battery by 3 P.M. whereas cruising the Colorado Path, occasionally wanting on the display screen and recording a monitor within the background.

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Gaia’s default map and consumer interface. I discover it the prettiest, best, and most away from the three.

Smartphone navigation

The principle leg up the smartphone has over a paper map is seeing precisely the place you might be and the place you’re going relative to the paths.

Caltopo: 🟢 Good. No complaints from me right here!
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good. I just like the compass ‘dial’ on the prime and the placement marker simple to learn.
onX BC: 🟢 Good. Management of whether or not your route is displaying is much less constant.

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On-the-Fly Route Planning

Generally, routes don’t go as deliberate as a consequence of hearth, climate, or simply plain being drained. With the ability to simply make a brand new plan is helpful when issues go south.

Caltopo: 🔴 Poor. When you can nonetheless draw straight segmented polylines, reduce, be a part of, and so on, the app model of Caltopo can’t snap to present path strains, even when on-line.
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good. Snap-to-trail works properly on-line, and decently offline (given you chose to obtain that information, which is a separate checkbox from the map tiles). I nonetheless miss the cut-and-join instruments of Caltopo for extra in depth on-the-fly reroutes.
onX BC: 🟡 Okay. Snap-to-trail solely works on-line sadly, which is nice for planning routes on the town however not a lot for within the area.

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Pace Statistics

In case you are a aggressive hiker or attempting to watch coaching progress, having some velocity stats will be fairly helpful.

Caltopo: 🔴 Poor. That is clearly not the main focus of Caltopo. When you can see how lengthy you may have been recording an energetic monitor, anything comparable to tempo, present velocity, and so on is solely absent.
Gaia GPS: 🟢 Good. Whereas this isn’t fairly a runner’s app like Strava, they’ve a complete tab on their house row with information like max, common, and present velocity, tempo (mi/hr and min/mi), and graphs of some stats.
onX BC: 🟡 Okay. It offers you common velocity in mph, however don’t expect way more.

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Gaia’s Journey stats menu. Whereas not 100% correct, they’re fairly useful in retaining you transferring at velocity.

Climate Information

Making an attempt to resolve whether or not to gun for that summit within the afternoon? Getting access to climate information together along with your particular itinerary will be helpful for decision-making.

Caltopo: 🟢 Glorious. Their map overlays are finest at school with completely different outlook ranges for temperatures, rain, snow, wind common, wind gust, avalanche, and extra. It additionally has good entry to a community of climate stations, which offer present and historic information charts (however no level forecast). If their overlays aren’t particular sufficient, you possibly can right-click and get a shortcut to a NOAA grid cell forecast, which has very thorough graphs of all varieties of climate information.
Gaia GPS: 🟡 Okay. They’ve precip, smoke, and avalanche overlays, however lack wind and temperature information or climate station information.
onX BC: 🟡 Okay. OnX’s climate information is obtainable solely as information from a restricted collection of bodily stations. Whereas I recognize the depth of data accessible by choosing particular person factors, most of them are positioned in city areas the place I don’t really want it. I would like good forecasts for peaks and passes, the place it issues essentially the most. Aspect word: the way in which it caches information loaded once you go offline will be complicated.

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Making a set of map prints utilizing Caltopo. It saves as a geospatial PDF by default to allow them to even be shared and utilized by others, or in different apps like Avenza.

Map Printing Instruments

There’s no respected mountain climbing authority that can advocate you navigate solely along with your cellphone. Printing paper maps is a vital backup for sizzled or drained electronics.

Caltopo: 🟢 Glorious. There’s a useful gizmo for aligning units of prints, working in a number of paper codecs and resolutions, permitting diversified paper orientations for curvy trails, print scales, and can retailer print units briefly for later recall. A distinguishing function for individuals who desire a backup.
Gaia GPS: 🟡 Okay. It has just a few preselected paper sizes, however not a ton, and doesn’t make units; each print needs to be one-off. This makes it simple to zoom out and in and alter the dimensions by chance.
onX BC: 🔴 Poor. You can in all probability get higher prints by screenshotting and pasting into one other program. There aren’t any print scales or perhaps a graphic scale to point the scale of what you’re looking at.

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So, Which GPS Platform Is Greatest?

The “Report Card.” I see a whole lot of inexperienced for Caltopo, and a whole lot of pink for onX.

In my view, Caltopo has loads going for it and has essentially the most various function set. There are many distinctive and killer options that compelled me to attempt it, however I’m not blind to the actual fact it may be laborious to choose up for newbies. I’ve really helpful to various people who they stick to Gaia or perhaps a actually user-friendly primary program like AllTrails. Whereas I recognize the efforts onX has made to interrupt into the backpacker area, I feel they’ve loads to work by way of earlier than they change into a go-to platform.

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Featured Picture: Graphic design by Chris Helm.

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